Other factors in the constitutional changes were continued Hungarian dissatisfaction with rule from Vienna and increasing national consciousness on the part of other nationalities or ethnicities of the Austrian Empire. Hungarian dissatisfaction arose partly from Austria's suppression with Russian support of the Hungarian liberal revolution of — However, dissatisfaction with Austrian rule had grown for many years within Hungary and had many other causes.
The Balkans A map of the Balkans inshowing recent territorial changes and the extent of Ottoman rule A significant cause of European tension prior to World War I was continued instability and conflict in the Balkans. The name itself referred to a large peninsula sandwiched between four seas: On this land mass was a cluster of nations and provinces, including Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia and Bosnia.
At the turn of the century the Balkan region was less populated and under-developed, in comparison to western Europe; it had few natural resources, so was hardly an economic prize. The importance of the Balkan peninsula lay in its geographic location. Situated at the crossroads of three major empires — Ottoman, Russian and Austro-Hungarian — and with access to several important waterways, the Balkans were strategically vital.
Because of this, the area had for centuries been a gateway between East and West, an area of cultural and mercantile exchange, and a melting pot of ethnicities and people. The Balkans underwent significant change and disorder in the late 19th century.
At its peak the Ottoman Empire had ruled most of eastern Europe, including the Balkan states. But by the late s the Ottomans were in retreat. During this century Greece, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria all achieved independence from Ottoman rule.
Western European powers — particularly Britain, France, Germany and Russia — developed a strong interest in the region, based on concerns about what might happen once the Ottoman Empire disintegrated.
Russia hoped to expand its territory by moving into the Balkans and other areas formerly under Ottoman rule.
The Russian navy, with its ports on the Black Sea, coveted access to and control of the Bosphorus, which provided shipping access to the Mediterranean.
Britain was opposed to Russian expansion into the Mediterranean and the Middle East, so wanted the Ottoman Empire to remain intact for as long as feasible, to provide a buffer against the Russians. Germany hoped to acquire bankrupt Ottoman regions as vassal states, possibly even as colonies.
Neiberg, historian In several Balkan nations, incited by Russia, signed a series of military alliances that formed the so-called Balkan League.
The agenda of this coalition was to wage war on the Ottomans and drive them out of eastern Europe entirely. The League declared war in October and despite the looseness of their alliance, the Balkan states emerged victorious after just eight months of fighting.
In June Bulgaria launched a surprise attack on its former Balkan League allies, in what was little more than an opportunistic grab for territory.
The Bulgarians were quickly defeated by the Greeks, Serbians and Romanians in barely a month. The Treaty of Bucharest August penalised Bulgaria severely, leaving it frustrated and hostile towards its neighbours.
The Serbs, victorious in both Balkan Wars, were the main beneficiary; their nation almost doubled in size with the acquisition of Kosovo and parts of Macedonia and Albania.
The two Balkan wars forced the Great Powers to revisit their foreign policy in the region — especially Russia, which was now dependent on Serbia as a buffer against Austro-Hungarian aggression. The first was a sharp increase in Serbian nationalism. Several Serb nationalist groups had formed in the early s and flourished for the next decade.
Their primary aim was to free Serbia from foreign control and influence, particularly from Vienna. In the Austro-Hungarians formally annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina.
This roused nationalist movements in the region. These groups were encouraged by Russian agents, as well as individuals in the Serbian government, public service and military.
Most of their activities revolved around political agitation or the production of anti-Austrian propaganda — but some also trained for and plotted acts of terrorism. Another profound consequence of Serbian expansion was that it threatened the stability of Austro-Hungary.
The Hapsburg empire had already surrendered significant territory to the Italians and the Russians in the s; the developments in the Balkans in seemed to hint at even more losses. Austro-Hungarian generals began talking tough about Serbia. The ageing Austrian emperor, Franz Josef, was not keen on war and was reluctant to place his cherished military at risk.
The Balkans were a cluster of nations in eastern Europe, between the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. Their location made the Balkans strategically important, so European powers were focused on events there. The Balkans were also politically volatile, a hotbed of ethnic and nationalist tensions.
The Balkans were disrupted by two wars inas well as rising Serbian nationalist groups.Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that Currency: Gulden (to ), Krone (–).
The Turkish part of the Balkan Peninsula was an area of extensive geodetic surveys between and These works were carried out by the Austro-Hungarian authorities, partially in the frame of the International Arc Measurements . The importance of the Balkan peninsula lay in its geographic location. Situated at the crossroads of three major empires – Ottoman, Russian and Austro-Hungarian – and with access to several important waterways, the Balkans were strategically vital. Apr 27, · undermine the Habsburg position in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which nominally were still under Ottoman suzerainty, Aehrenthal decided to use the opportunity to fortify the Austro-Hungarian position in the Balkan Peninsula.
The "Coburg Prince" is of course Ferdinand, King of Bulgaria. That he acted under Austro-Hungarian influences in attacking his Balkan Allies on that fateful Sunday, June 29, , is .
Austro-Hungarian Slavs included Poles, Ukrainians, Czechs, Slovenes, Serbs, Croats, and Slavonized Bulgars. Nationalism in the Balkan Peninsula was seen as the beginning of the potential breakup of both the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from Government: Constitutional monarchy, Liberal autocracy, Personal union (through dual monarchy).
The Balkan Wars were two wars that took place in the Balkans in and Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the first war; one of the four, Bulgaria, was defeated in the second war. The Ottoman Empire lost nearly all of its holdings in Europe.
The Austro-Hungarian Triangulations in the Balkan Peninsula (–) Russian tension led to the Crimean War. During this war, Austria forced its former.