From to there was a remarkably productive period of innovation and experiment as novelists and poets undertook, in anthologies and magazines, to challenge the literary conventions not just of the recent past but of the entire post-Romantic… Modernism in literature The Modernist impulse is fueled in various literatures by industrialization and urbanization and by the search for an authentic response to a much-changed world.
Names of Germany Roman limes and modern boundaries. The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc from diot "people"referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German.
Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High Germanattested from the second half of the 12th century.
It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century. The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic "Dutch" and "German" dialects and their speakers.
The English term Germans is only attested from the midth century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and later Tacitus. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century. Originally part of the Holy Roman Empirearound independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in ending the Thirty Years War.
These states eventually formed into modern Germany in the 19th century.
By 55 BC, the Germans[ citation needed ] had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, and had spread west into what is now Belgium and France. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria.
The arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns initially were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but later the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, and large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of Attila.
These five tribes, sometimes with inclusion of the Frisiansare considered as the major groups to take part in the formation of the Germans. Medieval period Further information: The process was gradual and lacked any clear definition, and the use of exonyms designating "the Germans" develops only during the High Middle Ages.
After Christianizationthe Roman Catholic Church and local rulers led German expansion and settlement in areas inhabited by Slavs and Balts, known as Ostsiedlung. During the wars waged in the Baltic by the Catholic German Teutonic Knights ; the lands inhabited by the ethnic group of the Old Prussians the current reference to the people known then simply as the "Prussians"were conquered by the Germans.
At the same time, naval innovations led to a German domination of trade in the Baltic Sea and parts of Eastern Europe through the Hanseatic League.
Along the trade routes, Hanseatic trade stations became centers of the German culture. German town law Stadtrecht was promoted by the presence of large, relatively wealthy German populations, their influence and political power.
Thus people who would be considered "Germans", with a common culture, language, and worldview different from that of the surrounding rural peoples, colonized trading towns as far north of present-day Germany as Bergen in NorwayStockholm in Swedenand Vyborg now in Russia.
The Hanseatic League was not exclusively German in any ethnic sense: The Empire itself was not entirely German either. It had a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual structure, some of the smaller ethnicities and languages used at different times were Dutch, Italian, French, Czech and Polish.
The Napoleonic Wars were the cause of the final dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, and ultimately the cause for the quest for a German nation state in 19th-century German nationalism. After the Congress of ViennaAustria and Prussia emerged as two competitors.
Austria, trying to remain the dominant power in Central Europe, led the way in the terms of the Congress of Vienna.
The Congress of Vienna was essentially conservative, assuring that little would change in Europe and preventing Germany from uniting. By the s, large numbers of Jewish German women had intermarried with Christian German men and had converted to Christianity.
Bismarck appears in white. The Grand Duke of Baden stands beside Wilhelm, leading the cheers. German nationalism became the sole focus of the German Question which was the question of how Germany was going to be best unified into a nation-state.
It created the German Empire in as a German nation-stateeffectively excluding the multi-ethnic Austrian Habsburg monarchy and Liechtenstein.
Integrating the Austrian Germans nevertheless remained a strong desire for many people of Germany and Austria, especially among the liberals, the social democrats and also the Catholics who were a minority within the Protestant Germany.
During the 19th century in the German territories, rapid population growth due to lower death rates, combined with poverty, spurred millions of Germans to emigrate, chiefly to the United States. Volksdeutsche and Reichsdeutsche The German Empire of — Nearly million people around the world were of German ancestry in The dissolution of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire after World War I led to a strong desire of the population of the new Republic of German Austria to be integrated into Germany or Switzerland.This lesson offers a side-by-side comparison of the original text of the prologue to William Shakespeare's 'Romeo and Juliet' and a modern English translation.
Film and literature analysis made easy German. German Literature & Film Student Study Day (Das Leben der Anderen, Der Vorleser and Good Bye, Lenin!) Study Guides Review Read a review of the Study Guides by Vanessa Salter, Modern Foreign Languages Trainer, written independently for the Association for Language Learning.
leslutinsduphoenix.com is a football analysis website with a heavy tactical emphasis. Download Modern Methods of Plant Analysis / Moderne Methoden der Pflanzenanalyse (English, German and French Edition) PDF phase and hence have no direct bearing on the retention time of solutes.
However in gas-solid chromatography, a considerable quantity of the mobile phase may be adsorbed on the surface of the stationary adsorbent which. The Middle Ages is like no other period in The Norton Anthology of English Literature in terms of the time span it covers.
Caedmon's Hymn, the earliest English poem to survive as a text (NAEL 8, ), belongs to the latter part of the seventh century. The current German state, called the Federal Republic of Germany, was founded in in the wake of Germany's defeat in World War II.
At first, it consisted only of so-called West Germany, that is the areas that were occupied by British, French, and American forces.