Reply Fri 7 Nov, Is God considered male or female? Guru Granth Sahib G.
It developed a path of renunciation and purification designed to liberate one from the shackles of karma, allowing one to enter into a state of eternal liberation from rebirth, or kevala, which is roughly equivalent to the Buddhist concept of nirvana.
The primary method of attaining this ultimate state requires a careful observance of nonviolent behavior. Jainism emphasizes nonviolence, or ahimsa, as the only true path that leads to liberation and prescribes following scrupulous rules for the protection of life in all forms.
The tradition holds that twenty-four great teachers, or Tirthankaras, established the foundations of the Jain faith. The most recent of these teachers, Vardhamana Mahavira also known as the Jina most probably lived during the time of the Buddha.
Recent scholarship suggests that the Buddha lived in the fourth century BCE.
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However, the traditional stories of Mahavira indicate that he was born into a family that followed the religious teachings of Parsvanatha, the twenty-third Tirthankara, who possibly taught during the eighth century BCE.
Because virtually no archaeological ruins can be found in India for the period from to BCE, exact dates cannot be determined. However, the first excavations of northern India during the Hellenistic era ca. Furthermore, the earliest Buddhist texts discuss Jainism in some detail, suggesting that it was a well-established tradition even before the time of the Buddha.
The Sramanical traditions do not accept the Vedas, advocate meditation rather than ritual, and look to monks and nuns for religious authority. Buddhism flourished in India until the tenth century, when its influence waned. Jainism did not establish a missionary tradition but cultivated a strong laity.
Eventually, two sects of Jainism arose: The two groups agree on the foundational Jain principles of karma and nonviolence. However, they differ on their biographical accounts of Mahavira, accept different texts as authentically canonical, and hold divergent views on renouncing clothing and on the potential spiritual status of women.
They also believe that women hold the potential to achieve the state of liberation, or kevala. These traditions arose in geographic isolation from one another and developed into distinct schools by the early centuries of the common era. The Acaranga Sutra ca.
One thinker, Umasvati, who probably lived in the fourth century CE, developed a philosophical approach to Jainism that both Svetambaras and Digambaras accept.
In a text known as the Tattvartha Sutra, or Aphorisms on the Meaning of Reality, he succinctly outlines the Jain world-view, describing karma, cosmology, ethics, and the levels of spiritual attainment gunasthana.
Later philosophers, including Haribhadra ca. During the Mogal period, Jinacandrasuri II —the leader of the Kharatara Gaccha a subdivision of the Svetambara sect achieved great influence at the court of Akbar, convincing the emperor to protect Jain pilgrimage places.
In contemporary times, Jain have become very influential in the areas of publishing, law, and business. They continue to work at integrating their philosophy of nonviolence into the daily life of India.
The Jain community has also participated in an extensive diaspora, with several tens of thousands living in various parts of the world. Jain business families settled in East Africa several decades ago.
In Kobe, Japan, Jains participate in the diamond trade. Jains began migrating to North America after the changes in immigration law ininspired by the Civil Rights movement. These new immigrants have built temples and organized several networks and organizations for maintaining Jain identity, including the Jaina Associations in North America JAINAwhich sponsors semiyearly conventions.
These gatherings have included presentations pertaining to current issues, such as environmentalism. For the Jains, this approach is anchored in a cosmology that views the world in terms of a cosmic woman whose body contains countless life souls jiva that reincarnate repeatedly until the rare attainment of spiritual liberation kevala.
The primary means to attain freedom requires the active nonharming of living beings, which disperses the karmas that keep one bound. Jains adhere to the vows of nonviolence to purify their karma and advance toward the higher states of spiritual attainment gunasthana.
For Jain laypeople, this generally means keeping to a vegetarian diet and pursuing livelihoods deemed to inflict a minimum of harm. For Jain monks and nuns, this means the need to avoid doing harm to all forms of life, including bugs and microorganisms nigoda. Contemporary environmental thinkers in the developed world, particularly within the last decade of the twentieth century, have come to emphasize the interconnectedness of life as the foundation for developing an environmental ethic.
On the policy level, the Endangered Species Act of the United States extends protection to even the smallest aspect of life, emphasizing the microphase as the key to ecosystem protection. Taking a different approach, Norway has developed a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of one action on the broader network of relationships within a given biome.
Drawing from her own relationships with trees, ecologist Stephanie Kaza has proposed an approach to the natural world that engenders feelings of tenderness, respect, and protection.
The relationship between person and tree, arising over and over again in many different contexts and with various individuals, is one subset of all human-nonhuman relationships.
I want to know, What does it actually mean to be in a relationship with a tree? Acknowledgment of and participation in relationships with trees, coyotes, mountains, and rivers is central to the philosophy of deep ecology. In the course of studying mountains and rivers in depth, one sees them explode into all the phenomena that support their existence—clouds, stones, people walking, animals crawling, the earth shaking.
By gaining intimacy with a small part of the whole, concern for the larger ecosystem arises.Sikh Study Circle of St. Louis (Gurudwara Sahib), Saint Peters, MO.
likes · 17 talking about this · were here. Welcome to the Sikh Study Circle. Jainism Introduction Center for the Study of World Religions Harvard Divinity School Religions of the World and Ecology Series. SIKHISM Sikhism is a Religion of uniqueness.
It has beliefs from two other religions; Hinduism and Islam (Borak 53).
This religion is very scarce in the United States. The main area for Sikhs is in the Northwest India (Borak 53). I had never heard of this religion before, so that is the main reason why I . Sikhs are the fifth largest religion in the world with a rich and varied history, uncountable sacrifices to make the world a better place to live in.
Still there are lot of people who don't know much about Sikhism. Many Sikhs disagree; they believe that their religion is a direct revelation from God - a religion that was not derived from either Hinduism or Islam. Sikhism does contain many unique postulates and principles that are quite different from both Hinduism and Islam.
1. Fascinating facts about Sikhism. I never knew the wonderful details of Sikhism till the time I got married to the one who despite being an atheist, was a great admirer of this monotheistic religion.